Current management of hemorrhagic shock favors restrictive fluid resuscitation before control of the bleeding source. We investigated the additional effects of early and sustained vasopressin infusion in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock produced by liver laceration.METHODS
Forty male domestic pigs (32–40 kg) had a liver laceration inflicted with an X-shaped blade clamp, 32 received a second laceration at minute 7.5, and 24 received two additional lacerations at minute 15. Using a two-by-two factorial design, animals were randomized 1:1 to receive vasopressin infusion (0.04 U/kg per minute) or vehicle intraosseously from minute 7 until minute 240 and 1:1 to receive isotonic sodium chloride solution (12 mL/kg) intravenously at minute 30 or no fluids.RESULTS
Kaplan-Meier curves showed greater survival after vasopressin with isotonic sodium chloride solution (8/10) compared to vasopressin without isotonic sodium chloride solution (4/10), vehicle with isotonic sodium chloride solution (3/10), or vehicle without isotonic sodium chloride solution (3/10), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.095 by log-rank test). However, logistic regression showed vasopressin to elicit a statistically significant benefit on survival (p = 0.042). Vasopressin augmented mean aortic pressure between 10 and 20 mm Hg without intensifying the rate of bleeding from liver laceration, which was virtually identical to that of vehicle-treated animals (33.9 ± 5.1 and 33.8 ± 4.8 mL/kg). Vasopressin increased systemic vascular resistance and reduced transcapillary fluid extravasation, augmenting the volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution retained (6.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.4 ± 2.0 mL/kg by minute 60). The cardiac output and blood flow to the myocardium, liver, spleen, kidney, small bowel, and skeletal muscle at minute 120 and minute 180 were comparable or higher in the vasopressin group.CONCLUSIONS
Early and sustained vasopressin infusion provided critical hemodynamic stability during hemorrhagic shock induced by liver laceration and increased the hemodynamic efficacy of restrictive fluid resuscitation without intensifying bleeding or compromising organ blood flow resulting in improved 240-minute survival.