Improving mortality in trauma laparotomy through the evolution of damage control resuscitation: Analysis of 1,030 consecutive trauma laparotomies

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BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to evaluate the related change in outcomes (mortality, complications) in patients undergoing trauma laparotomy (TL) with the implementation of damage control resuscitation (DCR). We hypothesized that the implementation of DCR in patients undergoing TL is associated with better outcomes.METHODSWe analyzed 1,030 consecutive patients with TL. Patients were stratified into three phases: pre-DCR (2006–2007), transient (2008–2009), and post-DCR (2010–2013). Resuscitation fluids (crystalloids and blood products), injury severity score (ISS), vital signs, and laboratory (hemoglobin, international normalized ratio, lactate) parameters were recorded. Regression analysis was performed after adjusting for age, ISS, laboratory and vital parameters, comorbidities, and resuscitation fluids to identify independent predictors for outcomes in each phase.RESULTSPatient demographics and ISS remained the same throughout the three phases. There was a significant reduction in the volume of crystalloid (p = 0.001) and a concomitant increase in the blood product resuscitation (p = 0.04) in the post-DCR phase compared to the pre-DCR and transient DCR phases. Volume of crystalloid resuscitation was an independent predictor of mortality in the pre-DCR (OR [95% CI]: 1.071 [1.03–1.1], p = 0.01) and transient (OR [95% CI]: 1.05 [1.01–1.14], p = 0.01) phases; however, it was not associated with mortality in the post-DCR phase (OR [95% CI]:1.01 [0.96–1.09], p = 0.1). Coagulopathy (p = 0.01) and acidosis (p = 0.02) were independently associated with mortality in all three phases.CONCLUSIONThe implementation of DCR was associated with improved outcome in patients undergoing TL. There was a decrease in the use of damage control laparotomy, with a decrease in the use of crystalloid and an increase in the use of blood products.LEVEL OF EVIDENCEPrognostic study, level III.

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