Donated platelets are stored at 22°C and discarded within 5 days because of diminished function and risk of bacterial contamination. Decline of platelet function has been attributed to decreased mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. Resveratrol (Res) and cytochrome c (Cyt c), in combination with hypothermic storage, may extend platelet viability.METHODS
Platelets from 20 donors were pooled into four independent sets and stored at 22°C or 4°C in the absence or presence of Res (50 μM) or Cyt c (100 μM) for up to 10 days. Sequential measurement of platelet counts, coagulation function (thromboelastography), oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation, glucose-lactate levels, pH, TCO2, and soluble platelet activation markers (CD62P/PF-4) was performed.RESULTS
Platelet function diminished rapidly over time at 22°C versus 4°C (adenosine diphosphate, day 10 [0.6 ± 0.5] vs. [7.8 ± 3.5], arachidonic acid: day 10 [0.5 ± 0.5] vs. [30.1 ± 27.72]). At 4°C, storage treatment with Res or Cyt c limited deterioration in platelet function up to day 10, an effect not observed at 22°C (day 10, 4°C, Con [7.8 ± 3.5] vs. Res [37.3 ± 24.19] vs. Cyt c [45.83 ± 43.06]). Mechanistic analysis revealed oxygen consumption increased in response to Cyt c at 22°C, whereas neither Cyt c or Res affected oxygen consumption at 4°C. Lipid peroxidation was only reduced at 22°C (day 7 and day 10), but remained unchanged at 4°C, or when Res or Cyt c was added. Cytosolic ROS was significantly reduced by pretreatment with Res at 4°C. Total platelet count and soluble activation markers were unchanged during storage and not affected by Res, Cyt c, or temperature. Glucose concentration, pH and TCO2 decreased while lactate levels increased during storage at 22°C but not 4°C.CONCLUSION
Platelet function is preserved by cold storage for up to 10 days. This function is enhanced by treatment with Res or Cyt c, which supports mitochondrial activity, thus potentially extending platelet shelf life.