A review of the landscape: Challenges and gaps in trauma response to civilian high threat mass casualty incidents

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The ultimate goal of the emergency response and trauma system is to reduce potentially preventable death from trauma. Tremendous advances in trauma care emerged from the past 15 years of United States’ combat engagements around the globe. Unfortunately, combat and insurgency tactics have also metastasized to the civilian world, resulting in increasingly complex and dynamic acts of intentional mass violence. These high threat active violent incidents (AVIs) pose significant preparedness, response, and clinical care challenges to the civilian healthcare systems. Currently, there are several operational and policy gaps that limit the successful preparedness and response to AVIs and dynamic MCIs in the United States.

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