Prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including closed chest compressions, has commonly been considered ineffective in traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA) because traditional chest compressions do not produce substantial cardiac output. However, recent evidence suggests that chest compressions located over the left ventricle (LV) produce greater hemodynamics when compared to traditional compressions. We hypothesized that chest compressions located directly over the LV would improve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and hemodynamics when compared with traditional chest compressions, in a swine model of TCPA.METHODS
Transthoracic echocardiography was used to mark the location of the aortic root (traditional compressions), and the center of the LV on animals (n = 26) which were randomized to receive chest compressions in one of the two locations. After hemorrhage, ventricular fibrillation was induced. After 10 minutes of ventricular fibrillation, basic life support (BLS) with mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated and performed for 10 minutes followed by advanced life support (ALS) for an additional 10 minutes. During BLS, the area of maximal compression was verified using transesophageal echocardiography. Hemodynamic variables were averaged over the final 2 minutes of the BLS and ALS periods.RESULTS
Five (38%) of the LV group achieved ROSC compared with zero of the aortic root group (p = 0.04). Additionally, there was an increase in aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP), aortic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) at the end of both the BLS (95% confidence interval, SBP, −49 to −21; DBP, −14 to −5.6; and CPP, −15 to −7.4) and ALS (95% confidence interval: SBP, −66 to −21; DBP, −49 to −6.8; and CPP, −51 to −7.5) resuscitation periods among the LV group.CONCLUSION
In our swine model of TCPA, chest compressions performed directly over the LV improved ROSC and hemodynamics when compared with traditional chest compressions.