Extending the golden hour for Zone 1 resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta: Improved survival and reperfusion injury with intermittent versus continuous resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta in a porcine severe truncal hemorrhage model

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Noncompressible hemorrhage can be controlled using resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). Prolonged ischemia limits REBOA application during Zone 1 deployment. Intermittent inflation/deflation may effectively mitigate this problem.


A lethal abdominal vascular injury was created in 28 swines. Animals were randomized to controls (n = 7), 60 minutes full REBOA (FR, n = 5), time-based intermittent REBOA (iRT, n = 7), and pressure-based REBOA (iRP, n = 9). Intermittent groups had an initial inflation for 15 minutes, followed by 10-minute inflation: 3-minute deflation cycles (iRT), or an inflate/deflate schedule based on mean arterial pressure (MAP) less than 40 mm Hg (iRP). Experiments were concluded after 120 minutes or death (MAP < 20 mm Hg).


Intermittent REBOA animals all survived to 120 minutes versus 15 minutes for controls and 63 minutes for FR (p < 0.001). After 60 minutes, FR animals were more hypotensive (MAP 20 mm Hg vs. 80 mm Hg [iRP] and 100 mm Hg [iRT]; p < 0.001), had lower cardiac output (1.06 mL/min vs. 5.1 L/min [iRP] and 8.2 L/min [iRT]; p < 0.001), higher lactate (12.5 mg/dL vs. 8.5 mg/dL [iRP], p = 0.02), and decreased clot firmness on rotational thromboelastometry than iRP/T (64 mm vs. 69 mm [iRP] and 69 mm [iRT], p = 0.04). Acidosis was worse in iRT versus iRP at 120 minutes (pH 7.28 vs. pH 7.12; p = 0.02), improved lactate (11.9 mg/dL vs. 16.3 mg/dL; p = 0.04), and decreased whole blood resuscitation (452 mL vs. 646 mL, p = 0.05). Blood loss (clot weight) was higher in controls (2.0 kg) versus iRT and iRP (1.16 kg and 1.23 kg; p < 0.01) and not different from FR (0.87 kg; p = 0.10).


Intermittent REBOA can maintain supraceliac hemorrhage control while decreasing distal ischemia in a swine model. Prolonged survival times, decreased acidosis, and lower resuscitation requirements indicate that this technique could potentially extend Zone 1 REBOA deployment times. Schedules based on MAP may be superior to time-based regimens.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles