Parallel Imaging in MR Angiography

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The recently developed techniques of parallel imaging with phased array coils are rapidly becoming accepted for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) applications. This article reviews the various current parallel imaging techniques and their application to MRA. The increased scan efficiency provided by parallel imaging allows increased temporal or spatial resolution, and reduction of artifacts in contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA). Increased temporal resolution in CE-MRA can be used to reduce the need for bolus timing and to provide hemodynamic information helpful for diagnosis. In addition, increased spatial resolution (or volume coverage) can be acquired in a breathhold (eg, in renal CE-MRA), or in otherwise limited clinically acceptable scan durations. The increased scan efficiency provided by parallel imaging has been successfully applied to CE-MRA as well as other MRA techniques such as inflow and phase contrast imaging. The large signal-to-noise ratio available in many MRA techniques lends these acquisitions to increased scan efficiency through parallel imaging.

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