Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) holds promise to address some of the shortcomings of routine clinical breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to expand the capabilities of imaging in breast cancer management. DWI reflects tissue microstructure, and provides unique information to aid in characterization of breast lesions. Potential benefits under investigation include improving diagnostic accuracy and guiding treatment decisions. As a result, DWI is increasingly being incorporated into breast MRI protocols and multicenter trials are underway to validate single-institution findings and to establish clinical guidelines. Advancements in DWI acquisition and modeling approaches are helping to improve image quality and extract additional biologic information from breast DWI scans, which may extend diagnostic and prognostic value.