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Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is increasingly incorporated into routine body magnetic resonance imaging protocols. DWI can assist with lesion detection and even in characterization. Quantitative DWI has exhibited promise in the discrimination between benign and malignant pathology, in the evaluation of the biologic aggressiveness, and in the assessment of the response to treatment. Unfortunately, inconsistencies in DWI acquisition parameters and analysis have hampered widespread clinical utilization. Focusing primarily on liver applications, this article will review the basic principles of quantitative DWI. In addition to standard mono-exponential fitting, the authors will discuss intravoxel incoherent motion and diffusion kurtosis imaging that involve more sophisticated approaches to diffusion quantification.