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Neuropsychological assessment has traditionally been used to help diagnose diseases of the central nervous system. In rehabilitation settings, however, such evaluations are conducted to estimate patients' functional abilities, such as ability to live independently. The study examined the ecological validity of neuropsychological measures in terms of their empirical ability to predict competency for independent living in geriatric patients following discharge from a geriatric rehabilitation unit. Results identified neuropsychological measures that discriminated between patients capable and incapable of safely resuming living alone following hospitalization. The article outlines the clinical implication of results, in terms of competency determinations made by psychologists.