Type A Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A), the most potent poison known to mankind, is produced by Clostridium botulinum type A as a complex with neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs). Currently BoNT/A in purified and complex forms are both available in therapeutic and cosmetic applications to treat neuromuscular disorders. Whereas Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxin A, Merz Pharmaceuticals, Germany) is free from complexing proteins, Botox® (onabotulinumtoxin A, Allergan, USA) contains NAPs, which by themselves have no known role in the intracellular biochemical process involved in the blockade of neurotransmitter release. Since the fate and possible interactions of NAPs with patient tissues after intramuscular injection are not known, it was the aim of this study to evaluate the binding of BoNT/A and/or the respective NAPs to cells derived from neuronal and non-neuronal human tissues, and to further explore neuronal cell responses to different components of BoNT/A. BoNT/A alone, the complete BoNT/A complex, and the NAPs alone, all bind to neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. The BoNT/A complex and NAPs additionally bind to RMS13 skeletal muscle cells, TIB-152 lymphoblasts, Detroit 551 fibroblasts besides the SH-SY5Y cells. However, no binding to these non-neuronal cells was observed with pure BoNT/A. Although BoNT/A, both in its purified and complex forms, bind to SH-SY5Y, the intracellular responses of the SH-SY5Y cells to these BoNT/A components are not clearly understood. Examination of inflammatory cytokine released from SH-SY5Y cells revealed that BoNT/A did not increase the release of inflammatory cytokines, whereas exposure to NAPs significantly increased release of IL-6, and MCP-1, and exposure to BoNT/A complex significantly increased release of IL-6, MCP-1, IL-8, TNF-α, and RANTES vs. control, suggesting that different components of BoNT/A complex induce significantly differential host response in human neuronal cells. Results suggest that host response to different compositions of BoNT/A based therapeutics may play important role in local and systemic symptoms in patients.