Microcystins activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in human liver cellsin vitro– Implications for an oxidative stress induction by microcystins

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Abstract

Microcystins, a potential threat to drinking water quality, are hepatotoxic but it has remained unclear if microcystins induce oxidative stress. We investigated if four microcystins could activate the Nrf2 pathway, a regulator of oxidative stress response. Nrf2 activity was significantly increased by microcystin-LR and -RR at 10 μM, by microcystin-LY at 3 μM, by [D-Asp3]-LR and by microcystin-LR at 1 μM. Our results lend support to the suggestion that microcystins may induce oxidative stress response.

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