The epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of a spontaneous outbreak of Palicourea aeneofusca poisoning in goats are reported. The main clinical signs were motor incoordination, generalized muscle tremors, broad-based posture, tachypnea, tachycardia, vocalization and respiratory distress. Two goats died 5 and 20 min after the observation of the first clinical signs. Another that was found recumbent died 80 h later. One goat with mild clinical signs recovered. Congestion and hemorrhages were observed macroscopically and histologically in most organs. Pulmonary edema was also observed. The main microscopic findings consisted of cytoplasmic vacuolization and necrosis of the renal tubular epithelium. The average concentration of monofluoroacetate obtained in sixteen samples of P. aeneofusca was 0.29 ± 0.17%. It is concluded that P. aeneofusca is toxic to goats under natural conditions.