T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi and are commonly found on food and feed. Although T-2 toxin and DON have been suggested as the etiology of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), an endemic osteochondropathy, little is known about the mechanism when human chondrocytes are exposed to T-2 toxin and DON. The purpose of this study is to identify the gene expression differences and underlying molecular changes modulated by T-2 toxin and DON in vitro in human chondrocytes. After the experiments of cell viability, the gene expression profiles were analyzed in cells that were treated with 0.01 μg/ml T-2 toxin and 1.0 μg/ml DON for 72 h by Affymetrix Human Gene Chip. The array results showed that 882 and 2118 genes were differentially expressed for T-2 toxin and DON exposure, respectively. Enrichment analysis revealed that diverse cellular processes including DNA damage, cell cycle regulation and metabolism of extracellular matrix were affected when human chondrocytes were exposed to T-2 toxin and DON. These results demonstrate the gene expression differences and molecular mechanism of cultured human chondrocytes exposure to T-2 toxin and DON, and provide a new insight into future research in the etiology of KBD.