The history of antivenoms development: Beyond Calmette and Vital Brazil

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Abstract

This review presents the main contributions to our knowledge regarding the development of antivenoms for therapeutic use in victims of venomous animal bites. We cover the progress of serum therapy since tetanus and diphtheria antitoxins in Germany and France until the current scenario of antivenom production worldwide. During these more than 120 years of antivenom development, many researchers contributed to establish what are nowadays the antivenoms used for therapeutic purpose. The history of antivenoms development is fascinating! This review aims to recognize all those who contributed to the establishment of new sera, new methodologies and saving lives: much more than Calmette and Vital Brazil.

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