Pro-inflammatory response and hemostatic disorder induced by venom of the coral snakeMicrurus tener tenerIN C57BL/6 mice

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Abstract

Micrurus venoms are known to induce mainly neurotoxicity in victims. However, other manifestations, including hemorrhage, edema, myotoxicity, complement activation, and hemostatic activity have been reported. In order to develop a more complete pharmacological profile of these venoms, inflammatory responses and hemostasis were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice treated with a sub-lethal dose of M. t. tener (Mtt) venom (8 μg/mouse), inoculated intraperitoneally. The venom induced moderate bleeding into the abdominal cavity and lungs, as well as infiltration of leukocytes into the liver. After 30 min, the release of pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and NO) were observed, being most evident at 4 h. There was a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at 72 h, a prolongation in coagulation times (PT and aPTT), a decrease in the fibrinogen concentration and an increase in fibrinolytic activity. In this animal model, it was proposed that Mtt venom induces inflammation with the release of mediators such as TNF-α, in response to the toxins. These mediators may activate hemostatic mechanisms, producing systemic fibrinolysis and hemorrhage. These findings suggest alternative treatments in Micrurus envenomations in which neurotoxic manifestations do not predominate.

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