|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
PhTx2 is the most toxic fraction from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, being responsible to sodium entry into cortical synaptosomes, increasing the release of neurotransmitters, such as L-glutamate (L-Glu) and; acetylcholine. In this study, we investigated the action of a toxin purified from; PhTx2 fraction, called PnTx2-6 or δ-CNTX-Pn2a, on L-Glu release from rat; brain cortex synaptosomes, as well as its ability to induce blood-brain barrier permeability. PnTx2-6 increased L-Glu release from rat cortical brain synaptosomes in a time- and dose-dependent manner (EC50 = ˜20 nM; Tm = 16min), as measured by a fluorimetric method. The increase of L-Glu by PnTx2-6 was inhibited by tetrodotoxin. And partially inhibited by EGTA. Calcium channel blockers ω-conotoxin MVIIC (P/Q-types) and ω-conotoxin GVIA (N-type), were able to reduce the PnTx2-6-induced release of L-Glu, while nifedipine (L-type) did not show any inhibition. These findings suggest that thew release of L-Glu by PnTx2-6 is due its primary action on sodium channels, well-known to be target of this toxin. PnTx2-6 is able to potentiate penile erection and this effect may be related with the release of L-glutamate from the CNS, besides a local effect on corpus carvenosum, as previously shown by our group. If L-Glu release and penile erection potentiation are indeed correlated, then this toxin should be able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). Results by immunoblotting assays indicated a change in the expression of proteins associated with the paracellular and transcellular transport at the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a BBB dysfunction mediated by PnTx2-6. Therefore, PnTx2-6 may induce the release L-glutamate in the central nervous system, when injected peripherally.The toxin PnTx2-6 (or δ-CNTX-Pn2a) induces L-Glu release from rat brain synaptosomes.The L-glu release depends on Na + channels and P/Q and N Ca + channels.PnTx2-6 modifies proteins of blood brain barrier and should be able to cross it.