The Kv1.3 channel-inhibitory toxin BF9 also displays anticoagulant activity via inhibition of factor XIa

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Abstract

The Kv1.3 channel plays potential roles in immune, inflammation and coagulation system. Many studies showed that Kv1.3 channel inhibitors have immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities, but no Kv1.3 channel inhibitors have been found to have anticoagulation activities. Here, based on our previous work about Kv1.3 channel toxin peptide inhibitors, we first attempt to test anticoagulation activities of four known venom-derived Kv1.3 channel inhibitors with different structural folds: BmKTX with CSα/β structural fold, OmTx3 with CSα/α structural fold, BF9 with Kuntz-type structural fold, and SjAPI-2 with Ascaris-type structural fold. Our results showed that BmKTX and OmTx3 have no activities towards both intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathway, SjAPI-2 just has weak activity towards intrinsic coagulation pathway, and BF9 has potent activity towards intrinsic coagulation pathway with no apparent effect on extrinsic coagulation pathway. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments further showed that BF9 inhibited intrinsic coagulation pathway-associated coagulation factor XIa, but have no apparent effects on common coagulation pathway coagulation factor IIa. Structure-activity relationship showed that Gly14, Asn17, Ala18 and Ile20 of BF9 are main residues involved in the inhibiting effect on factor XIa. To the best of our knowledge, BF9 is the first anticoagulant with Kv1.3 channel inhibitory activity. Together, our present studies found the first dual functional peptides with Kv1.3 channel and coagulation factor XIa inhibitory activities, and provided a new molecular template for the lead drug discovery towards immune and thrombosis-associated human diseases.

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