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Our understanding of the mechanisms that incite neurological diseases has progressed rapidly in recent years, mainly owing to the advent of new research instruments and our increasingly facile ability to assemble large, complex data sets acquired across several disciplines into an integrated representation of neural function at the molecular, cellular, and systemic levels. This mini-review has been designed to communicate the principal technical advances and current issues of importance in neuropathology research today in the context of our traditional neuropathology practices. Specific topics briefly addressed in this paper include correlative biology of the many facets of the nervous system; conventional and novel methods for investigating neural structure and function; theoretical and technical issues associated with investigating neuropathology end points in emerging areas of concern (developmental neurotoxicity, neurodegenerative conditions); and challenges and opportunities that will face pathologists in this field in the foreseeable future. We have organized this information in a manner that we hope will be of interest not only to professionals with a career focus in neuropathology, but also to general pathologists who occasionally face neuropathology questions.