Comparative aromatic hydroxylation andN-demethylation of MPTP neurotoxin and its analogs,N-methylated β-carboline and isoquinoline alkaloids, by human cytochrome P450 2D6


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Abstract

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin is a chemical inducer of Parkinson's disease (PD) whereas N-methylated β-carbolines and isoquinolines are naturally occurring analogues of MPTP involved in PD. This research has studied the oxidation of MPTP by human CYP2D6 (CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*10 allelic variants) as well as by a mixture of cytochrome P450s-resembling HLM, and the products generated compared with those afforded by human monoamine oxidase (MAO-B). MPTP was efficiently oxidized by CYP2D6 to two main products: MPTP-OH (p-hydroxylation) and PTP (N-demethylation), with turnover numbers of 10.09 min−1 and Km of 79.36 ± 3 μM (formation of MPTP-OH) and 18.95 min−1 and Km 69.6 ± 2.2 μM (PTP). Small amounts of dehydrogenated toxins MPDP+ and MPP+ were also detected. CYP2D6 competed with MAO-B for the oxidation of MPTP. MPTP oxidation by MAO-B to MPDP+ and MPP+ toxins (bioactivation) was up to 3-fold higher than CYP2D6 detoxification to PTP and MPTP-OH. Several N-methylated β-carbolines and isoquinolines were screened for N-demethylation (detoxification) that was not significantly catalyzed by CYP2D6 or the P450s mixture. In contrast, various β-carbolines were efficiently hydroxylated to hydroxy-β-carbolines by CYP2D6. Thus, N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline (a close MPTP analog) was highly hydroxylated to 6-hydroxy-N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline and a corresponding 7-hydroxy-derivative. Thus, CYP2D6 could participate in the bioactivation and/or detoxification of these neuroactive compounds by an active hydroxylation pathway. The CYP2D6*1 enzymatic variant exhibited much higher metabolism of both MPTP and N(2)-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline than the CYP2D6*10 variant, highlighting the importance of CYP2D6 polymorphism in the oxidation of these toxins. Altogether, these results suggest that CYP2D6 can play an important role in the metabolic outcome of both MPTP and β-carbolines.

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