Ultrafine carbon particles promote rotenone-induced dopamine neuronal loss through activating microglial NADPH oxidase

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Background:Atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFPs) and pesticide rotenone were considered as potential environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether and how UFPs alone and in combination with rotenone affect the pathogenesis of PD remains largely unknown.Methods:Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, a surrogate of UFPs) and rotenone were used individually or in combination to determine their roles in chronic dopaminergic (DA) loss in neuron-glia, and neuron-enriched, mix-glia cultures. Immunochemistry using antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase was performed to detect DA neuronal loss. Measurement of extracellular superoxide and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed to examine activation of NADPH oxidase. Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase and MAC-1 receptor in microglia were employed to examine their role in DA neuronal loss triggered by ufCB and rotenone.Results:In rodent midbrain neuron-glia cultures, ufCB and rotenone alone caused neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner. In particularly, ufCB at doses of 50 and 100 μg/cm2 induced significant loss of DA neurons. More importantly, nontoxic doses of ufCB (10 μg/cm2) and rotenone (2 nM) induced synergistic toxicity to DA neurons. Microglial activation was essential in this process. Furthermore, superoxide production from microglial NADPH oxidase was critical in ufCB/rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. Studies in mix-glia cultures showed that ufCB treatment activated microglial NADPH oxidase to induce superoxide production. Firstly, ufCB enhanced the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (gp91phox, p47phox and p40phox); secondly, ufCB was recognized by microglial surface MAC-1 receptor and consequently promoted rotenone-induced p47phox and p67phox translocation assembling active NADPH oxidase.Conclusion:ufCB and rotenone worked in synergy to activate NADPH oxidase in microglia, leading to oxidative damage to DA neurons. Our findings delineated the potential role of ultrafine particles alone and in combination with pesticide rotenone in the pathogenesis of PD.Graphical abstractUltrafine particles and rotenone synergistically induce the assembly of active form NADPH oxidase complex in microglia inducing oxidative damage to dopamine neurons.HighlightsUltrafine carbon black promotes dopaminergic neuronal loss induced by rotenone.The role and underlying mechanism of ultrafine particles in the pathogenesis of PDNADPH oxidase is a potential therapeutic target of Parkinson's disease.

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