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The activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a critical role in liver fibrosis. In the current study, γ-mangostin (γ-man), one of the major xanthones from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), was found to alleviate fibrogenesis in human immortalized HSCs (LX-2 cells) and in liver from chronic carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) injured mice. γ-Man suppressed the expression levels of collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in LX-2 cells in both dose and time dependent manners. Furthermore, γ-man inhibited NAD(P)H oxidase activity through induction of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), resulting in reduced intracellular oxidative stress in LX-2 cells. Moreover, γ-man stimulated the expression of histone deacetylase 1, which in turn decreased the acetylation and cytoplasmic shuttling of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), to impair autocrine HMGB1-induced HSC activation. In CCl4-injured mice, γ-man enhanced the expression of SIRT3 and decreased the expression of HMGB1, resulting in decreased accumulation of collagen I and α-SMA in liver. Consequently, γ-man might be a potent candidate to treat oxidative stress induced liver fibrosis.γ-Mangostin alleviates fibrogenesis in vitro and in vivo.γ-Mangostin enhances the expression and activity of SIRT3.γ-Mangostin suppresses NOX activity and decreases intracellular oxidative stress.γ-Mangostin decreases the activity of HDAC1 and the acetylation level of HMGB1.