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Liver resection is performed to remove tumors in patients with liver cancer, but the procedure's suitability depends on the regenerative ability of the liver. It is important to consider the effects of exogenous factors, such as diets, on liver regeneration for the recovery of function. The evaluation of drug metabolism during liver regeneration is also necessary because liver dysfunction is generally observed after the operation. Here, we investigated the influence of a purified diet (AIN-93G) on liver regeneration and changes in the mRNA expression of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in the liver and small intestine using a two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PH) mouse model fed with a standard diet (MF) and a purified diet. Liver regeneration was significantly delayed in the purified diet group relative to that in the standard diet group. The liver Cyp2c55 and Cyp3a11 expression was increased at 3 day after PH especially in the purified diet group. Bile acid may partly cause the differences in liver regeneration and CYP expression between two types of diets. On the other hand, Cyp3a13 expression in the small intestine was transiently increased at day 1 after PH in both diet groups. The findings suggest that compensatory induction of the CYP expression occurred in the small intestine after attenuation of drug metabolism potential in the liver. The present results highlight the importance of the relationship between liver regeneration, drug metabolism, and exogenous factors for the effective treatment, including surgery and medication, in patients after liver resection or transplantation.Liver regeneration was delayed in hepatectomized mice fed with a purified diet.Liver cytochrome P450 mRNA expression changed during liver regeneration.Compensatory induction of cytochrome P450 can be observed in the small intestine.Cytochrome P450 expression after hepatectomy differed depending on the diet.During regeneration, bile acids may partly cause cytochrome P450 induction.