Efficacy of retigabine in ameliorating the brain insult following sarin exposure in the rat


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Abstract

Background:Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor. Following toxic signs, an extensive long-term brain damage is often reported. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel anticonvulsant drug retigabine, a modulator of neuronal voltage gated K+ channels, as a neuroprotective agent following sarin exposure.Methods:Rats were exposed to 1 LD50 or 1.2 LD50 sarin and treated at onset of convulsions with retigabine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) alone or in combination with 5 mg/kg atropine and 7.5 mg/kg TMB-4 (TA) respectively. Brain biochemical and immunohistopathological analyses were processed 24 h and 1 week following 1 LD50 sarin exposure and at 4 weeks following exposure to 1.2 LD50 sarin. EEG activity in freely moving rats was also monitored by telemetry during the first week following exposure to 1.2 LD50 and behavior in the Open Field was evaluated 3 weeks post exposure.Results:Treatment with retigabine following 1 LD50 sarin exposure or in combination with TA following 1.2 LD50 exposure significantly reduced mortality rate compared to the non-treated groups. In both experiments, the retigabine treatment significantly reduced gliosis, astrocytosis and brain damage as measured by translocator protein (TSPO). Following sarin exposure the combined treatment (retigabine+ TA) significantly minimized epileptiform seizure activity. Finally, in the Open Field behavioral test the non-treated sarin group showed an increased mobility which was reversed by the combined treatment.Conclusions:The M current modulator retigabine has been shown to be an effective adjunct therapy following OP induced convulsion, minimizing epileptiform seizure activity and attenuating the ensuing brain damage.HighlightsTA treatment did not show a sufficient survival protection following sarin exposure.Retigabine treatment was not sufficient in reducing the neuronal insult.The combined treatment minimized by half the duration of the epileptoform activity.TA with retigabine treatment reduced gliosis, astrocytosis, and neuronal damage.The combined treatment ameliorated the sarin-induced behavioral impairment.

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