Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 activation decreases acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by prevention of mitochondrial depolarization

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


Oxidative stress contributes to acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Since lipid peroxidation produces reactive aldehydes, we investigated whether activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) with Alda-1 decreases liver injury after APAP. Male C57BL/6 mice fasted overnight received Alda-1 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before APAP (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Blood and livers were collected 2 or 24 h after APAP. Intravital multiphoton microscopy of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence was conducted 6 h after APAP administration to detect mitochondrial polarization status and cell death. 4-Hydroxynonenal protein adducts were present in 0.1% of tissue area without APAP treatment but increased to 7% 2 h after APAP treatment, which Alda-1 blunted to 1%. Serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases increased to 7594 and 9768 U/L at 24 h respectively, which decreased ≥72% by Alda-1. Alda-1 also decreased centrilobular necrosis at 24 h after APAP from 47% of lobular areas to 21%. N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine protein adduct formation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase phosphorylation increased after APAP as expected, but Alda-1 did not alter these changes. Without APAP, no mitochondrial depolarization was detected by intravital microscopy. At 6 h after APAP, 62% of tissue area showed depolarization, which decreased to 33.5% with Alda-1. Cell death as detected by PI labeling increased from 0 to 6.8 cells per 30× field 6 h after APAP, which decreased to 0.6 cells by Alda-1. In conclusion, aldehydes are important mediators of APAP hepatotoxicity. Accelerated aldehyde degradation by ALDH2 activation with Alda-1 decreases APAP hepatotoxicity by protection against mitochondrial dysfunction.Graphical abstractHighlightsOxidative stress after APAP overdose increases reactive aldehyde production.Increased aldehydes after APAP promote liver injury.Activation of ALDH2 by Alda-1 increases aldehyde detoxification after APAP.Alda-1 decreases liver injury after APAP overdose by protection of mitochondria.Alda-1 does not alter APAP metabolism or JNK activation.

    loading  Loading Related Articles