Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 activation decreases acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by prevention of mitochondrial depolarization


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Abstract

Oxidative stress contributes to acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Since lipid peroxidation produces reactive aldehydes, we investigated whether activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) with Alda-1 decreases liver injury after APAP. Male C57BL/6 mice fasted overnight received Alda-1 (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 30 min before APAP (300 mg/kg, i.p.). Blood and livers were collected 2 or 24 h after APAP. Intravital multiphoton microscopy of rhodamine 123 (Rh123) and propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence was conducted 6 h after APAP administration to detect mitochondrial polarization status and cell death. 4-Hydroxynonenal protein adducts were present in 0.1% of tissue area without APAP treatment but increased to 7% 2 h after APAP treatment, which Alda-1 blunted to 1%. Serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases increased to 7594 and 9768 U/L at 24 h respectively, which decreased ≥72% by Alda-1. Alda-1 also decreased centrilobular necrosis at 24 h after APAP from 47% of lobular areas to 21%. N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine protein adduct formation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase phosphorylation increased after APAP as expected, but Alda-1 did not alter these changes. Without APAP, no mitochondrial depolarization was detected by intravital microscopy. At 6 h after APAP, 62% of tissue area showed depolarization, which decreased to 33.5% with Alda-1. Cell death as detected by PI labeling increased from 0 to 6.8 cells per 30× field 6 h after APAP, which decreased to 0.6 cells by Alda-1. In conclusion, aldehydes are important mediators of APAP hepatotoxicity. Accelerated aldehyde degradation by ALDH2 activation with Alda-1 decreases APAP hepatotoxicity by protection against mitochondrial dysfunction.Graphical abstractHighlightsOxidative stress after APAP overdose increases reactive aldehyde production.Increased aldehydes after APAP promote liver injury.Activation of ALDH2 by Alda-1 increases aldehyde detoxification after APAP.Alda-1 decreases liver injury after APAP overdose by protection of mitochondria.Alda-1 does not alter APAP metabolism or JNK activation.

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