In addition to its function as a fatty acid hydroxylase, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) target gene, CYP4A, has been shown to be important in the conversion of arachidonic acid to the potent vasoconstrictor 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, suggesting a role for this enzyme in mediating vascular tone. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of beagle dog CYP4A37, CYP4A38, and CYP4A39 from the liver was determined. Open reading frame analysis predicted that CYP4A37, CYP4A38, and CYP4A39 each comprised 510 amino acids with ∼ 90% sequence identity to one another, and ∼ 71 and 78% sequence identity to rat CYP4A1 and human CYP4A11, respectively. PCR analysis revealed that the three dog CYP4A isoforms are expressed in kidney > liver ≫ lung ≫ intestine > skeletal muscle > heart. Treatment of primary dog hepatocytes with the PPARα agonists GW7647X and clofibric acid resulted in an increase in CYP4A37, CYP4A38, and CYP4A39 mRNA expression (up to fourfold), whereas HMG-CoA synthase mRNA expression was increased to a greater extent (up to 10-fold). These results suggest that dog CYP4A37, CYP4A38, and CYP4A39 are expressed in a tissue-dependent manner and that beagle dog CYP4A is not highly inducible by PPARα agonists, similar to the human CYP4A11 gene.