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Owing to concerns over the effects of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles and their interaction with biological systems, further investigation is required. We investigated, for the first time, the toxicity of lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) containing a polymeric wall of poly([Latin Small Letter Open E]-caprolactone) and a coating of polysorbate 80 used as drug delivery devices (~245nm) in Wistar rats after single- and repeated-dose treatments. The suspensions were prepared by interfacial deposition of the polymer and were physicochemically characterized. Toxicological effects were determined after single doses of 18.03, 36.06, and 72.12 × 1012 LNC/kg and repeated doses of 6.01, 12.02, and 18.03 × 1012 LNC/kg for 28 days by ip administration. The results for both the treatments showed no mortality or permanent body weight changes during the experiments. A granulomatous foreign body reaction was observed in the liver and spleen of higher dose groups in acute and subchronic treatments. Most of the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity markers were within the reference values and/or were similar to the control group. However, a slight alteration in the hematologic parameters was observed in both the studies. Thus, to verify a possible methodological influence, we performed an in vitro test to confirm such influence. These findings are in agreement with earlier reports regarding no appreciable toxicity of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles, indicating that LNC might be a safe candidate for drug delivery system. Furthermore, the results presented in this study are important for health risk assessment and to implement strategies for testing biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles.