Thymoglobulin is used effectively as an induction agent in kidney transplantation, but the optimal dose is not well established. We evaluated the degree and durability of T-cell clearances with two different thymoglobulin regimens in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Seven KTR received a 3-day thymoglobulin-based induction of 1.0 mg/kg/day while nine received 1.5 mg/kg/day, in addition to maintenance immunosuppression. Lymphocyte subsets were monitored for 6 months. Renal function, infections and malignancies were monitored for 24 months. T-cell subsets were significantly lower by day 30 with the thymoglobulin 1.5 mg/kg/day regimen when compared with the 1.0 mg/kg/day regimen; this trend was sustained at 6-month (CD3+: 438 ± 254 vs. 1001 ± 532 cells/mm3, P = 0.016). Renal function between the two groups was not significantly different at 6- and 24-months post-transplant. One case of BK Virus viremia in the 1.5 mg/kg/day thymoglobulin group was detected. No acute rejection episodes, cytomegalovirus infections, or malignancies were noted in either group. Thymoglobulin induction was efficacious in both groups, but with a significantly sustained T-cell clearance in the 1.5 mg/kg/day regimen. A more profound T-cell clearance within the first 6 months postinduction therapy may translate into a decreased risk of immunological injury and improved long-term outcome after kidney transplantation.