Currently available immunosuppressive agents can be classified into three categories: induction agents, maintenance therapy, and treatment for rejection. This review article will focus on induction immunosuppression. There are three antibodies which are used for induction therapy: the lymphocyte-depleting agents – anti-thymocyte globulin and alemtuzumab, and basiliximab which is nondepleting. Historically, immunosuppressant selection was solely based on efficacy for prevention of rejection. In the current era of transplantation, it is now common practice in the transplant community to select induction therapy on the basis of risk–benefit considerations for each patient. This article will focus on the efficacy of available induction agents and the selection of induction agent based on donor and recipient risk factors.