There have been more than 90 hand and upper extremity transplants performed worldwide. Functional and sensory outcomes have been reported in several studies, but little is known about the psychosocial outcomes. A comprehensive systematic literature review was performed, addressing the psychosocial impact of reconstructive hand transplantation. This review provides an overview of psychosocial evaluation protocols and identifies standards in this novel and exciting field. Essentials of the psychosocial assessment are discussed and a new protocol, the ‘Chauvet Protocol’, representing a standardized assessment protocol for future multicenter psychosocial trials is being introduced.