Renal allografts were performed between and among animals from three herds of miniature swine that were selectively inbred to homozygosity at the major histocompatibility complex, MSLA. The results suggest several genetic factors which influence the survival of renal allografts in these animals. As expected, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was of dominant importance, and all MSLA-mismatched grafts were rejected promptly (12 $PT 3.7 days). Some MSLA-matched grafts were also rejected (30 $PT 15.0 days), indicating that non-MSLA loci also determine antigens which can lead to kidney rejection. Other MSLA-matched grafts were accepted indefinitely. At least one immune response gene that determined ability to reject kidneys across non-MSLA differences seemed to be segregating in our swine population. Animals that had accepted MSLA-matched renal grafts for extended periods demonstrated markedly prolonged survival of subsequent donor skin grafts compared to skin graft survival across the same non-MSLA difference in normal animals. This finding suggests that failure to reject kidneys across non-MSLA differences indicates systemic tolerance, and that there may be a relationship between the induction of such tolerance and the proposed immune response gene controlling rejection.