The hepatic conversion of lignocaine to monoethylgly-cinexylidide (MEGX) has been used as a real time monitor of liver function in liver transplant recipients. Data are reported for the first 4 weeks after transplant in 50 consecutive orthotopic liver grafts in 47 adults. The MEGX concentration was significantly depressed by approximately 50% in those patients in whom there was a complicated clinical course (excluding steroid-sensitive rejection) after transplantation, compared with patients in whom major complications did not occur. The MEGX concentration in the recipients after transplant was independent of the donor MEGX concentration, but, in addition to the patient's clinical status, was strongly influenced by the recipients pretransplant biochemical profile, being inversely related to the pretransplant bilirubin concentration. MEGX concentrations < 25 μg/L in the first 36 hr after revascularization were predictive of greater morbidity and mortality.