Early Cyclosporine C0 and C2 Monitoring in De Novo Kidney Transplant Patients: A Prospective Randomized Single-Center Pilot Study

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C2 monitoring of cyclosporine (CsA) has been promoted as improving the results of organ transplantation. No randomized, controlled studies in de novo kidney transplant recipients are available.


Between June 2003 and August 2004, 160 consecutive cadaveric kidney recipients allocated to CsA, mycophenolate and steroids were randomized to either C0 or C2 monitoring of CsA for the first 3 weeks posttransplant. Both levels were measured, keeping the other level blinded until 3 weeks. Altogether, 1451 double measurements were done. The target C0 was 200–300 μg/L and C2 1500–2000 μg/L. From the fourth week on, only C0 monitoring was used. Median follow up time was 505 days.


The overall 3-month rejection rate was 7.5% in Group C0 vs. 10.8% in Group C2 and the one-year graft survival rates were 92.5% vs. 94.6% (NS). Rate of delayed graft function was similar in the groups. Plasma creatinine tended to be higher in group C2 at 3 weeks, but not thereafter. During the first three weeks posttransplant, the mean CsA dose was 57%, mean C2 levels were 55%, and mean C0 levels were 98% higher in group C2 than in group C0 (P<0.00001).


This pilot study showed no advantages of C2 monitoring but led to significantly higher CsA doses and blood levels than C0 monitoring.

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