Living-Donor Lobar Lung Transplantation for Pulmonary Complications After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

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Abstract

Background.

The indication of lung transplantation for patients with pulmonary complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains controversial, and only few such cases have been reported. We reviewed our experiences regarding living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) in patients with pulmonary complications of HSCT.

Methods.

We reviewed and assessed seven patients (age, 6–45 yr) who underwent LDLLT at Okayama University Hospital for pulmonary complications of HSCT (HSCT group). Their characteristics and postoperative results were compared with those of 41 LDLLT without HSCT patients (non-HSCT group). In the HSCT group, indications for LDLLT included bronchiolitis obliterans (n=6) and pulmonary fibrosis (n=1) that had developed after treatments involving HSCT. Preexisting hematologic diseases included acute lymphocyte leukemia (n=4), acute promyelocystic leukemia (n=1), myelodysplastic syndrome (n=1), and aplastic anemia (n=1).

Results.

In the HSCT group, two patients died due to infectious complications, whereas five are currently alive (an overall survival of 71.4%) without any recurrence of the hematologic diseases (mean follow-up period, 35.7 months). The mean of acute rejection episodes was 1.1 per patient in the HSCT group and 1.8 in the non-HSCT group. One of the seven HSCT (14.4%) and 10 non-HSCT (24.4%) patients have currently developed bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

Conclusion.

Our results showed that LDLLT for patients with respiratory failure because of pulmonary complications of HSCT could be an effective approach with less rejection episodes; however, it has a possibly higher risk of the development of infectious complications.

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