Experience With Immune Monitoring in Lung Transplant Recipients: Correlation of Low Immune Function With Infection

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Abstract

Background.

Lung transplants, in particular, have the highest rate of infections among solid organ transplant recipients. However, there is no existing objective measure to predict the development of infections. We report the correlation between Cylex ImmuKnow (ng/mL ATP) values and various infectious syndromes in a large prospective cohort of lung transplant recipients.

Methods.

We followed up 175 lung transplants that developed 129 infectious episodes. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed; generalized estimating equations were used to determine the odds ratio for infections.

Results.

The median ImmuKnow values in cytomegalovirus disease (49.3 ng/mL ATP), viral infection (70 ng/mL ATP), and bacterial pneumonia (92 ng/mL ATP) were significantly different from stable state (174.8 ng/mL ATP). The median ImmuKnow values of fungal disease (85 ng/mL ATP) and tracheobronchitis (123 ng/mL ATP) had a tendency to be lower than stable state (P=0.10), whereas patients with fungal colonization had comparable ImmunKnow values (167 vs. 174.8 ng/mL ATP). Of the patients colonized with fungus who subsequently developed fungal disease within 100 days, the median value of ImmuKnow was significantly lower than in those who did not develop fungal disease (22.5 vs. 183.5 ng/mL ATP; P<0.0001). Generalized estimating equation regression analysis showed ImmuKnow values less than or equal to 100 ng/mL ATP to be an independent predictor of infections (odds ratio 2.81).

Conclusions.

Cylex ImmuKnow assay monitoring has the potential to identify the patients at risk of developing infection and those colonized with fungus that are at risk of developing disease.

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