Association of Arterial Hypertension With Renal Target Organ Damage in Kidney Transplant Recipients: The Predictive Role of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

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Abstract

Background.

Although arterial hypertension is a powerful predictor of graft failure, only few studies have evaluated 24-hr blood pressure (BP) profile in renal transplant recipients (RTRs).

Methods.

We performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in 94 RTRs (65 men; age 28-71 years) with 1-year functioning grafts. Serum biochemical parameters, daily proteinuria, and transplantation-related data were evaluated in all subjects.

Results.

ABPM showed that only 5% of RTRs were normotensives (BP<130/80 mm Hg) and identified 29% of patients with nocturnal hypertension. A strong, direct correlation was shown between each set of both systolic BP and diastolic BP measured by ABPM and serum creatinine, daily proteinuria, and serum triglycerides (P at least <0.025 for each). Serum creatinine immediately after transplantation and 1-yr asleep diastolic BP were the only significant predictors of 1-yr creatinine (P<0.0001; r2=0.49), whereas awake systolic BP was the only predictor of daily proteinuria (r2=0.39; P=0.005) by multiple regression analysis.

Conclusions.

BP assessed by ABPM proved to be a stronger predictor of renal graft damage than traditional immunologic factors. ABPM improved the diagnostic accuracy of arterial hypertension in RTRs and was the only effective tool in disclosing the association of BP with 1-year renal transplant outcome.

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