Effects of ACE Inhibitors on Long-Term Outcome of Renal Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Background

Available data on the role of renin-angiotensin system blockade in renal transplantation are inconclusive. Herein, we report the long-term results of a randomized controlled trial planned to evaluate the impact of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) on the cardiovascular outcome of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) receiving calcineurin inhibitors, steroids, and mycophenolate mofetil.

Methods

Thirty-six RTRs were allocated to receive ACE-i and 34 served as controls. Survival free of a composite endpoint consisting of death, major cardiovascular events, renal graft loss or creatinine doubling, and survival free of each single endpoint were analyzed in both groups according to a modified intention-to-treat analysis.

Results

During a 10-year follow-up, three patients died (one in the ACE-i group and two controls) and three lost their graft (two receiving ACE-i and one control). Three major cardiovascular events were observed in the ACE-i group and 12 among controls (P=0.008). At the end of observation, a significant increase in urinary protein excretion rate was only observed in controls (P=0.017).

Results

Compared with controls, RTRs administered ACE-i had significantly better survival free of the combined endpoint (P=0.0102, log-rank test) and free of major cardiovascular events (P=0.0027) without significant differences in renal outcome. By Cox regression analysis, ACE-i therapy resulted in the most powerful predictor of survival free of composite endpoint (hazard ratio, 0.165; 95% confidence interval, 0.053–0.512; P=0.0018) and survival free of major cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 0.209; 95% confidence interval, 0.068–0.636; P=0.0059).

Conclusions

Prolonged therapy with ACE-i was associated with better general and cardiovascular outcome of RTRs without detrimental effects on renal graft function.

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