Evolution of Living Donor Nephrectomy at a Single Center: Long-term Outcomes With 4 Different Techniques in Greater Than 4000 Donors Over 50 Years

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Abstract

Background

The development of minimally invasive surgical approaches to donor nephrectomy (DN) has been driven by the potential advantages for the donor, with questions remaining about long-term outcomes.

Methods

All living DN performed from June 1963 through December 2014 at the University of Minnesota were reviewed. Outcomes were compared among 4 DN techniques.

Results

We performed 4286 DNs: 2759 open DN (ODNs), 1190 hand-assisted (HA) laparoscopic DNs (LDNs), 203 pure LDN (P-LDNs), and 97 robot-assisted-LDN. Laparoscopic DN was associated with an older (P < 0.001) and heavier (P < 0.001) donor population. Laparoscopic DN was associated with a higher probability of left kidney procurement (P < 0.001). All 3 LDN modalities required a longer operative time (P < 0.001); robot-assisted-LDN took significantly longer than HA-LDN or P-LDN. Laparoscopic DN decreased the need for intraoperative blood transfusion (P < 0.001) and reduced the incidence of intraoperative complications (P < 0.001) and hospital length of stay (P < 0.001). However, LDN led to a significantly higher rate of readmissions, both short-term (<30 day, P < 0.001) and long-term (>30 day, P < 0.001). Undergoing HA-LDN was associated with a higher rate of an incisional hernia compared with all other modalities (P < 0.001). For recipients, LDN seemed to be associated with lower rates of graft failure at 1 year compared with ODN (P = 0.002). The odds of delayed graft function increased for kidneys with multiple arteries procured via P-LDN compared with HA-LDN (OR 3 [1,10]) and ODN (OR 5 [2, 15]).

Conclusions

In our experience, LDN was associated with decreased donor intraoperative complications and hospital length of stay but higher rates of readmission and long-term complications.

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