Targeted Complement Inhibition Protects Vascularized Composite Allografts From Acute Graft Injury and Prolongs Graft Survival When Combined With Subtherapeutic Cyclosporine A Therapy

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Abstract

Background

Recipients of vascularized composite allografts require aggressive and lifelong immunosuppression, and because the surgery is usually performed in nonlife-threatening situations, the development of strategies to minimize immunosuppression is especially pertinent for this procedure. We investigated how complement affects acute graft injury, alloimmunity, and immunosuppressive therapy.

Methods

Vascularized composite allografts were transplanted from Balb/C to C57BL/6 mice that were complement deficient (C3 or double C3a Receptor (R)/C5aR), or treated with a targeted complement inhibitor (CR2-Crry). Allografts were analyzed for acute inflammation and injury, subacute T cell response, and survival in the absence and presence of cyclosporine A (CsA) therapy.

Results

Allografts in C3-deficient or CR2-Crry–treated recipients were protected from skin and muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). C3aR/C5aR-deficient recipients were more modestly protected. IgM and C3d colocalized within allografts from wild type and C3aR/C5aR-deficient recipients indicating IgM-mediated complement activation, and C3d deposition was almost absent in allografts from C3-deficient and CR2-Crry–treated recipients. Inflammatory cell infiltration and P-selectin expression was also significantly reduced in C3-deficient and CR2-Crry–treated recipients. Acute treatment with CR2-Crry or with 3 mg/kg per day CsA modestly, but significantly increased median allograft survival from 5.8 to 7.4 and 7.2 days, respectively. However, combined acute CR2-Crry treatment and CsA therapy increased mean graft survival to 17.2 days. Protection was associated with significantly reduced T cell infiltration of allografts and Tc1 cells in recipient spleens.

Conclusions

Complement-mediated IRI augments graft allogenicity, and appropriate complement inhibition ameliorates IRI, decreases alloimmune priming and allows more immune-sparing CsA dosing.

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