The course of skin cancer after retransplantation in organ-transplant recipients who have already developed posttransplant skin cancer has not been assessed.Methods
This retrospective multicentric study included 53 patients with a history of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after a first kidney transplantation who received a second kidney transplantation. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of aggressive cutaneous SCC after the second transplantation. Secondary endpoints included the course of skin cancers over 3 periods (first transplantation, return to dialysis, second transplantation), the time to occurrence, and risk factors for aggressive SCC after retransplantation.Results
The first SCC developed in 47 patients with a functional graft and in 6 after return to dialysis. After the first transplantation, 17 (33.3%) patients developed SCC in dialysis and 39 (73.6%) after the second transplantation, respectively. Twenty aggressive SCC developed over the study period. They occurred in 14 (26.4%) patients after retransplantation vs 5 (9.4%) after the first transplantation with a median delay of 50 months and were responsible for 5 deaths. Fair skin type, multiple tumors before retransplantation, treatment with azathioprine, T cell–depleting antibodies, and delayed revision of immunosuppression were associated with an increased risk of aggressive cutaneous SCC after retransplantation.Conclusions
Candidates to retransplantation with a history of posttransplant SCC have a high risk of aggressive SCC. Our data suggest that the risk could be reduced by a tailored immunosuppression. A wait period may be required depending on the clinicopathological characteristics of the previous SCC and discussed on an individual patient basis.