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In recipients with type 1 diabetes, we aimed to determine whether long-term normoglycemia achieved by successful simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplantation could beneficially affect progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) when compared with transplantation of a kidney-alone from a living donor (LDK).In 42 kidney transplant recipients with functioning grafts who had received either SPK (n = 25) or LDK (n = 17), we studied angiographic progression of CAD between baseline (pretransplant) and follow-up at 7 years or older. In addition, computed tomography scans for measures of coronary artery calcification and echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function were addressed at follow-up.During a median follow-up time of 10.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 9.1-11.5) progression of CAD occurred at similar rates (10 of 21 cases in the SPK and 5 of 14 cases in the LDK group; P = 0.49). Median coronary artery calcification scores were high in both groups (1767 [IQR, 321-4035] for SPK and 1045 [IQR, 807-2643] for LDK patients; P = 0.59). Left ventricular systolic function did not differ between the 2 groups. The SPK and LDK recipients were similar in age (41.2 ± 6.9 years vs 40.5 ± 10.3 years; P = 0.80) and diabetes duration at engraftment but with significant different mean HbA1c levels of 5.5 ± 0.4% for SPK and 8.3 ± 1.5% for LDK patients (P < 0.001) during follow-up.In patients with both type 1 diabetes and end-stage renal disease, SPK recipients had similar progression of CAD long-term compared with LDK recipients. Calcification of coronary arteries is a prominent feature in both groups long-term posttransplant.