Recent Changes in Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorders and Associated Fractures After Kidney Transplantation

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BackgroundThe management of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorders has recently changed. We investigated the modifications of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder with a special focus on the incidence of fractures in the first year after kidney transplantation (KT).MethodsWe retrospectively compared 2 groups of patients who consecutively underwent transplantation at our center 5 years from each other. Group 1 consisted of patients (n = 152) transplanted between 2004 and 2006, whereas patients in group 2 (n = 137) underwent KT between 2009 and 2011.ResultsDuring the end-stage renal disease phase at the time of transplant, cinacalcet, and native vitamin D were used significantly more frequently in group 2. Median intact parathyroid hormone levels were lower and severe hyperparathyroidism decreased significantly. Vitamin D deficiency dropped from 64% to 20%. After transplantation, persistent hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone > 130 ng/L) and bone turnover markers were significantly reduced in group 2. Native vitamin D supplementation increased over time, whereas the use of active vitamin D was unchanged. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly higher. The fracture incidence at 1 year decreased significantly (3.1% vs 9.1%; P = 0.047). No steroid sparing was observed in group 2. Bisphosphonates after KT were more frequently used in group 2.ConclusionsRecent changes in clinical practice are associated with reductions in pretransplant and posttransplant hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and fracture risk after KT.

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