European-Mediterranean Postgraduate Program on Organ Donation and Transplantation Project (EMPODaT): Results of a 3 Years’ Project in Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco

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IntroductionEMPODaT’s aim was to cooperate in a higher education program of Organ Donation and Transplantation in Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco in accordance with the European Space for Higher Education guidelines. It was a TEMPUS product (an Education, Audio-visual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) program) [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][16] and the consortium was constituted by 4 European Univ., 1 European Foundation and 6 beneficiary Univ. from Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco (table1).MethodsProject evaluation[8] was done in 3 levels: Donation & Transplantation Diagnosis (DTD), Training[9][10] and Quality. DTD was carried out before designing the postgraduate curricula, following different adapted questionnaire methodologies and conducted in 3 parts: “Existing trainings & online feasibility”, “Specific training needs” and “Donation/Transplantation activity & university requirements”. Training (available in English and French) was designed in 1 academic year of 30 ECTS credits employing blended learning methodology[11]. Pre- and Post-training tests, self-assessing activities, and traineeship activity charts were used to evaluate the students. For Quality evaluation, assessment questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted[12].ResultsDTD Part I showed a lack of specific training held by Univ. in the 3 countries and good internet accessibility in the 6 Univ. Part II, answered by 444 health care students (61% male), reported 62% low knowledge on Donation and 72% on Transplantation, being donor management and surgical procedures the less known (77%; 82%). Part III detailed the current transplant/donation activity[13] (Deceased/Total kidneys transpl. 2013: Egypt 0/1800; Lebanon 10/109; Morocco 6/22)[15][16] and related figures (Num. of transpl. centres: Egypt 37; Lebanon 13; Morocco 6) in 2011-13. 90 students were trained (15 per Univ.), 39W-51M, 79 doctors (23% ICU, 22% surgeons) and 11 nurses. Significant differences were found among improvement knowledge between the countries (fig1). The main score in the project quality evaluation was 4.2 (scale 1-5) being the level of local coordinators the highest scored 4.48.ConclusionDespite the differences detected on donation & transplantation activity in the 3 countries, there was a need of specific training in all. Knowledge improvement in organ donation was greater than in transplantation topics. Morocco was the most beneficiated country obtaining better final scores albeit from lower basis. The project was overall highly appraised by students and local coordinators.Patricia Peralta Lasso. Francesc Martí. Gloria Páez. Ahmed Ali Morsy Ali. Ashraf Adel Mosharafa. Mohamed Adel Bakr. Ahmed Ibrahim Kamal Abdelkader. Hussein Sheashaa. Antoine Stephan. Farida Younan. Georges S. Juvelekian. Maha Khachab. Wissam Faour. Nadia Tahiri Jouti. Mohammed Benghanem Gharbi. Rabia Bayahia. Taoufik Dakka. Patrick Jambou. Peter Desatnik. Klaus Michael Lücking. Przemyslaw Pisarski. Patrick Samson-Himmelstjerna.References:1. EPP Group TV. ´´Higher Education in Europe´´. (last review 04/07/16).2. Bologna process – European Higher Education Area. Lifelong Learning. Available at: (last review 04/07/16).3. A TEMPUS Study. State of Play of the Bologna process in the Tempus Countries of the Southern Mediterranean (2009-2010). April 2010, Bruxelles – Belgique. Available at A TEMPUS Study. The main achievements of the Tempus programme in the Southern Mediterranean 2002 – 2013. Issue 15 ─ June 2013. Bruxelles – Belgique. Available at (last review 04/07/16).5. Higher Education in Egypt. July 2012. Giza, Egypt. Available at (last review 04/07/16).6. Higher Education in Lebanon. July 2012. Beirut, Lebanon. Available at (last review 04/07/16).7. Higher Education in Morocco. July 2012. Rabat Nahda Rabat (Morocco). Available at (last review 04/07/16).8. European-Mediterranean Postgraduate Trauning Program on Organ Donation and Transplantation (EMPODaT). Available at: (last review 04/07/16).9. Paez G, Valero R, Manyalich M. Training of health care students and professionals: a pivotal element in the process of optimal organ donation awareness and professionalization. Transplantation Proceedings 2009, Jul-Aug; 41: 2025-9.10. Manyalich M, Guasch X, Paez G, Valero R, Istrate M. ETPOD (European Training Program on Organ Donation): a successful training program to improve organ donation. Transplant International 2013, Apr; 26(4):373-84.11. Istrate M.G, Harrison T.R, Valero R, Morgan S.E, Páez G, Zhou Q, Rébék-Nagy G, Manyalich M. Benefits of Transplant Procurement Management (TPM) specialized training on professional competence development and career evolutions of health care workers in organ donation and transplantation. Exp Clin Transplant 2015, Apr;13 Suppl 1:148-55.12. Commission of the European Communities. Communication from the Commission: Action plan on Organ Donation and Transplantation (2009-2015): Strengthened Cooperation between Member States, 2008. Available at World Health Organization. Third WHO Global Consultation on Organ Donation and Transplantation. Striving to achieve self-sufficiency, March 23-25, 2010, Madrid, Spain. Transplantation 2011, 91 (Suppl.11): S27.14. Quick Guide to Dissemination for Support Staff. Available at: (last review 04/07/16).15. International Registry on Organ Donation and Transplantation (IRODaT). Available at: (last review 04/07/16).16. Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation. Available at (last review 04/07/16).

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