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Specific blockade of T cell costimulation pathway is a promising immunomodulatory approach being developed to replace our current clinical immunosuppression therapies. The goal of this study is to compare results associated with 3 monoclonal antibodies directed against the CD40/CD154 T cell costimulation pathway.Cynomolgus monkey heterotopic cardiac allograft recipients were treated with either IDEC-131 (humanized αCD154, n = 9), 5C8H1 (mouse-human chimeric αCD154, n = 5), or 2C10R4 (mouse-rhesus chimeric αCD40, n = 6) monotherapy using a consistent, comparable dosing regimen for 3 months after transplant.Relative to the previously reported IDEC-131-treated allografts, median survival time (35 ± 31 days) was significantly prolonged in both 5C8H1-treated (142 ± 26, P < 0.002) and 2C10R4-treated (124 ± 37, P < 0.020) allografts. IDEC-131-treated grafts had higher cardiac allograft vasculopathy severity scores during treatment relative to either 5C8H1 (P = 0.008) or 2C10R4 (P = 0.0002). Both 5C8H1 (5 of 5 animals, P = 0.02) and 2C10R4 (6/6, P = 0.007), but not IDEC-131 (2/9), completely attenuated IgM antidonor alloantibody (alloAb) production during treatment; 5C8H1 (5/5) more consistently attenuated IgG alloAb production compared to 2C10R4 (4/6) and IDEC-131 (0/9). All evaluable explanted grafts experienced antibody-mediated rejection. Only 2C10R4-treated animals exhibited a modest, transient drop in CD20+ lymphocytes from baseline at day 14 after transplant (−457 ± 152 cells/μL) compared with 5C8H1-treated animals (16 ± 25, P = 0.037), and the resurgent B cells were primarily of a naive phenotype.In this model, CD154/CD40 axis blockade using IDEC-131 is an inferior immunomodulatory treatment than 5C8H1 or 2C10R4, which have similar efficacy to prolong graft survival and to delay cardiac allograft vasculopathy development and antidonor alloAb production during treatment.