Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is an orphan disease with a high rate of recurrence after kidney transplantation. However, reports of successful prevention of posttransplant aHUS recurrence with eculizumab emerged a few years ago. To further delineate its optimal use, we describe the largest series of kidney transplant recipients treated with prophylactic eculizumab.Methods
Twelve renal transplant recipients with aHUS-related end-stage renal disease received eculizumab: 10 from day 0 and 2 at the time of recurrence (days 6 and 25). Clinical and histological features, complement assessment, and free eculizumab measurements were analyzed. The median follow-up was 24.6 months.Results
Five patients had failed at least 1 previous renal transplant from aHUS. A genetic mutation was identified in 9 patients, anti-H antibodies were found in 2. No patient demonstrated biological recurrence of thrombotic microangiopathy under treatment. Three antibody-mediated rejections (AMRs) occurred without detectable C5 residual activity. AMR was associated with subclinical thrombotic microangiopathy in 2 patients. One patient lost his graft after several complications, including AMR. One patient experienced posttransplant C3 glomerulonephritis. The last median serum creatinine was 128.2 ± 40.8 μmol/L.Conclusions
These data confirm that eculizumab is highly effective in preventing posttransplantation aHUS recurrence, yet may not fully block AMR pathogenesis.