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Alloantibodies are commonly used in kidney transplantation for donor/recipient immune matching as well as a marker of organ rejection after transplantation. In a broader context, anti-HLA antibodies development is associated with humoral response and B cells differentiation to long-lived memory cells. Recently studies on operational tolerance pointed to characteristic B cell phenotype and molecular signature. Thus, immune markers of anti-HLA antibodies development could point to early humoral immunity activation and may be beneficial for personalized risk stratification.Low-risk kidney transplant recipients (n=53) were followed-up to 24 months after transplantation for alloantibodies development and organ rejection. Every three months anti-HLA antibodies, lymphocytes B phenotype, and cytokines were assessed. Memory B lymphocytes phenotype was recognized as CD27+ cells, both IgM positive and negative. In contrary naïve B cells were identified as CD27- and CD5+ B lymphocytes. Th1/Th2 and BAFF serum levels were measured with Luminex solid phase assay.For the 34 recipients, alloantibodies were not present after transplantation, while for 19 others DSA antibodies were confirmed. The higher rate was observed 20 months after transplantation. Anti-HLA antibodies development was proceeded by increased in BAFF and INFgamma levels, as well as memory B lymphocytes numbers. It was found, that alloantibodies development was correlated with a number of memory B cells, Rs=0,96 (Spearman rank correlation).Lymphocytes B phenotype monitoring after kidney transplantation is useful for alloantibodies development and may serve as an additional marker of humoral immunity activation. These could be also beneficial for individual risk stratification and tailored immunosuppression protocol development after kidney transplantation.National Centre for Research and Development, Poland (No. STRATEGMED1/233368/1/NCBR/2014). National Science Centre, Poland (No. NN402420738 and NN402 562440).