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Experimental studies of short bowel syndrome (SBS) on animal models investigating the effects of probiotics have demonstrated various beneficial effects to the gut. Giving probiotics before the intestinal insult might augment the effect of probiotics, since they could colonise inside the gut. The aim of this study is to investigate whether preconditioning of the gut with probiotic enhances the benefical effect of probiotics on SBS in rats.Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats were allocated into three groups: Group I (Control Group) (n=12): small bowel resection, anastomosis; Group II (Probiotic Group, PB) (n=12): Small bowel resection, anastomosis, daily oral probiotic administration; Group III (Preconditioning Group, PC) (n=12): Daily oral probiotic administration for one week, small bowel resection, anastomosis, daily oral probiotic administration. The probiotic solution consisted of Lactobasillus rhamnosus and acidophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Bifidobacterium bifidum and longum. The probiotics dose administered was 1X109 CFU probiotics/kg, (1 ml probiotic solution, 250 million live bacteria/day). Animals were followed up for four weeks, then sacrificed. Body weight changes, macroscopic adhesion scores, intestinal adaptive growth and histologic changes were evaluated.The PC group showed significantly higher body weights than the control and PB groups (p<0.05). The PC group also had sigificantly increased crypt depths (78±14.8 μm) when compared with the control group (65±4.8 μm, p<0.05). The macroscopic adhesion scores for both probiotic groups were very similar (Group II: 0.5±0.4 and Group III: 0.45±0.3) and were significantly better then the control group (1.3±0.5, p<0.05). Probiotic supplementation either before or after the operation increased the bowel length, ceacum diameter and villus height compared with the control group.Preconditioning with probiotics prevented weight loss and increased the crypt depths after bowel resection without any side effects. Therefore, it could be considered as an additional treatment for patients who need extensive bowel resection and have the risk of short bowel syndrome.