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Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) complex underlines a genetic predisposition to a number of diseases or, conversely, is associated with resistance to certain diseases. The studying of mechanisms of communication between the HLA system and various renal pathology begun in the field of transplantology has found wide circulation at many pathological states, first of all the immunoinflammatory nature.Analysis of connection of presence of certain leukocyte antigens for patients with a diagnosis of: "Terminal chronic kidney disease" (further - TCKD), living in Kazakhstan had not previously been conducted.The aim of the research is to study distribution of the genetic polymorphism of histocompatibility antigens in patients with the diagnosis of TCKD and donors (healthy individuals) among the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan.Studied the frequency of occurrence of HLA antigens of an I-class (HLA-A, B) and an II class (HLA-DRB1 *) at patients with TCKD from Kazakhstan.Examined 7033 people: 3646 healthy blood donors and 3387 patients with the diagnosis of TCKD.The average age of donors (control group) was 41 years (range from 18 to 64 years). Mean age of patients (trial group) was 44 years (range from 1 to 98 years). The sex distribution among the patients was as follows: men 1989 (58.7%), women 1398 (41.2%). Among the donors, 2161 (59%) and 1,485 (41%) males prevailed, respectively.Blood samples from donors and patients according to HLA-A, B, DRB1 loci were determined by molecular-genetic method on the Protrans kits (Protrans, Germany).The results were evaluated using descriptive statistics, non-parametric χ2-criterion, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).Studying of distribution of antigens of the HLA system at patients with a chronic renal failure has allowed to assume existence of associative communications between existence in a phenotype of patients of HLA-A*24; B*37,* 40,* 50,* 54; DRB1* 10,* 11,* 12 and development of renal pathology. Also presumably a protective role has been established for the renal pathology of a number of antigens HLA-A * 02, * 03, * 25; B * 07, * 35, * 46; DRB1 * 01, * 08, * 15.Results of our research showed that for patients with CKD, representatives of the Kazakh ethnic group, a certain distribution of antigens is characteristic. Rather high frequency of occurrence of HLA-A*24; B*37,* 40,* 50,* 54; DRB1 * 10,* 11,* 12 antigens in experimental group can serve as the contributing factor in development of chronic kidney disease.In the perspective, this data retrieved can be used for early diagnosis and perform prevention of renal diseases.