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Smoking cessation prior to surgery is associated with lower rates of postoperative pulmonary complications (POPCs). Our study was performed to research the role of smoking on POPCs in renal transplantation patients.Data from 1840 patients who performed renal transplantation between 1987 and 2015 at Baskent University were analyzed retrospectively. The patients with smoking data were included in the study. Patient’s demographic, smoking status, comorbid diseases, postoperative early pulmonary complications recorded. The relation between postoperative pulmonary complications and risk factors were investigated.A total of 141 (39 women and 102 men; mean age 39.22 ± 12.91 years) adult renal transplant recipients included in the study. The incidence of early POPCs was 17% (n = 24). The most POPCs were atelectasis (n=12), pleural effusion (n=6), pneumonia (n=3), respiratory failure (n=3), respectively. Pulmonary embolism was occurred in 1 patient as a major complication. Smoking history was found in 60 of the patients (60/141 and 42.5%). Thirty-two of the patients were ex-smokers and 28 were current smoker at the time of transplantation surgery. There was a statistically significant relationship between the presence of atelectasis and smoking history (p=.004). A positive and statistically significant correlation was detected between atelectasis and pack years smoking (r=0.434 and p=0).Smoker renal transplantation patients have an increased risk for early postoperative pulmonary complications. Smoking cessation prior to surgery can reduce the risk of early postoperative complications.