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Organ Transplantation in Iran has come a long way with many different policies and approaches addressing demand and supply. The first successfully kidney transplantation was performed at Namazi Hospital in Shiraz from a living donor in 1967. However, there had been only limited transplant activities in Iran until mid-1970. Previously, patients compensated the lack of organ transplants in Iran by travelling outside the country including the United Kingdom for living related transplants or to India, taking advantage of commercially available organs, usually with poor outcomes. There have also been attempts in the past to import allografts from Europe and the United States. After 1979 revolution, kidney transplantation was activated in Iran by using living donors which was know as Iranian model. Recently, there has been emphasis to expand deceased donor kidney transplantation. However, there are several challenges to expand transplant care in Iran.